- 1). Using the pencil, lightly write a page number, 1 through 23, on the bottom left corner of 23 of the index cards. This will ensure that you have your final flip book pages in the correct order. The unmarked card will be used as a cover.
- 2). Using the marker, on the right half of Page 1, draw an oval to represent the cell, filling most of that half of the index card. Represent the 48 human chromosomes as eight for manageability. Draw these eight chromosomes inside the cell as half of an X. They should look like "<" or ">".
- 3). On the right half of Page 2, draw the cell and chromosomes in the same position as on Page 1. Show the doubling of the chromosomes by completing the other half of each X.
- 4). Copy the previous image onto Page 3 and add four centrioles, or poles, to the middle of the cell.
- 5). Copy the previous image onto Page 4, but place two of the poles slightly closer to the left edge of the cell and the other two slightly closer to the right edge of the cell. In each of Pages 5 through 7, continue to shift the locations of the centrioles until two are within the cell along the right cell wall and two are along the left cell wall. These successive minor location shifts will make it look like the poles are moving to the edges of the cell when the pages are flipped.
- 6). Copy the image from Page 7 onto Page 8, and add four spindle fibers between one pole on the left and one pole on the right. Repeat for the other pair of poles. The fibers should not pass through the chromosomes.
- 7). Copy the previous image onto Page 9, but place one chromosome randomly on each spindle fiber. Copy that image onto Page 10, but align the chromosomes down the center of the cell. There should still be one chromosome on each spindle fiber.
- 8). Copy the previous image onto Page 11, but slightly shorten the spindle fibers by severing them down the middle. Split the chromosomes so that the end of each spindle fiber segment has either "<" or ">". Repeat this image on Pages 12 through 14, successively shortening the spindle fibers on each page and thereby moving each chromosome half further away from its other half.
- 9). On Page 15, copy the image from Page 14 but leave out the spindle fibers and poles which have disappeared at this stage of the mitosis.
- 10

On Page 16, copy the previous image, but instead of a smooth oval cell, indent the cell wall slightly at the top and bottom to indicate the start of the cell splitting. The cell wall should slightly resemble a sideways hourglass. On Pages 17 through 20, continue this process by deepening the indentations in the cell wall until the cell resembles a sideways "8". - 11

On Page 21, slightly separate the two halves of the "8". There are now two daughter cells created from the original cell. On Pages 22 and 23, continue to increase the distance between the two cells. Mitosis is complete. - 12

Order the index cards by page number and place the blank card on top of the pile. Staple the cards together along the left edge of the pile using three evenly spaced staples. Write "Mitosis Flip Book" on the cover and optionally include your name.

- 1). Decide what older baseball card set you want to build. Sets that feature scarce cards will require more work and expense. Consider vintage cards you already own. If you own one or more key cards from a particular year and brand, you have the makings of a set.
- 2). Obtain a checklist of all the cards in the set. You can do this through some card collecting Web sites. A good one is keymancollectibles.com, which features free printable complete checklists for 1951-2009 Topps sets and many other brands and years. Print the checklist for your set.
- 3). Take an inventory of your personal collection. Gather all of the cards you own from that set. Cross them off the checklist and store them in a safe spot.
- 4). Now you have a complete list of the cards you need to finish your set. Make several copies of your list. Mail or e-mail them to dealers and major collectors. Take your list to local card shops. Remember, too, to include your name, phone number and e-mail address with the list.
- 5). When you hear from dealers and collectors who have the cards you want, check a price guide for the current market value of the cards. Then offer 70 to 80 percent of the card's market value. Most dealers sell cards for less than market value. Increase your offer if a dealer declines your initial offer.
- 6). Based on your finances, you might take a year or longer to complete the set. Ask dealers and collectors if they would be willing to hold the cards until you can pay for them. Many will agree to this. It is especially true for common cards that are in lesser demand.
- 7). After completing the set, store the cards in numerical order. Your work is done.

- 1). Handle old coins carefully. The quality of a coin is one of the major factors that affects the price. Any touching will negatively impact its quality. Use coin tongs or gloves when handling a coin. Oils on your fingers will cause damage, especially if it is in "brilliant uncirculated" condition. Place the coins in plastic coin flips so you can handle them without risk.
- 2). Figure out exactly what kind of coins you have. Use a magnifying glass to see the coin's small details. First determine what country it is from. It will say on the coin. If it is a foreign coin the country may be written in a foreign language. Take note of the denomination. For example, is it a half dollar, quarter or nickel? Next, record the year and mint mark. The mint mark will be a small letter or two indicating the place where the coin was made. For example, "P" indicates Philadelphia, "D" indicates Denver, "CC" indicates Carson City. American coins with no mint mark were made in Philadelphia.
- 3). Be on the lookout for coin varieties. Sometimes a small batch of coins have irregularities that make them rare and more valuable. Look for anything that doesn't look right. Occasionally old coins were stamped twice. These "double dies" look like they have images over images. Sometimes coins are missing details because the dies were polished too much. The most famous example of an irregular coin is the three-legged buffalo nickel.
- 4). Determine the condition of the coins. The higher the coin's "grade" the more it is worth. If the coin is shiny, has perfect detail and looks brand new then it may be "brilliant uncirculated." If it is worn down to the point that you can barely see the design, then it may be "about good" or "fair." Most old coins fall between these extremes. There are many resources like coin books and websites that will help you determine a coin's grade.
- 5). Find the listed price of the coins. Coin books and websites can also help you get a rough estimate of what old coins are worth. You must have all the information on the coin before looking up an approximate price. Small differences in details can make a huge difference in value. For example, an average grade 1909 penny might be worth $50 while the same coin with the engraver's initials "VDB" could be worth $600 or more.
- 6). Consult seasoned coin collectors or coin dealers to confirm the price of the old coins. Book prices for coins are approximations. The actual price could vary significantly. This is why someone experienced in coin grading and identification should examine your old coins. Opinions vary so, seek several opinions.

- The 135-HP MerCruiser 3.0L engine might be the perfect engine for your boat, but the decision cannot be made on looks alone. Knowing the specifications for the MerCruiser 3.0L engine will help you to determine on paper whether it is likely to suit your particular needs, saving you time and energy in the long run.

- The MerCruiser 3.0L is a 3-liter displacement engine with an inline-4 cylinder configuration.

- The bore and stroke of the MerCruiser 3.0L engine is 4 x 3.6 (in.), with a 9.3:1 compression ratio.

- The MerCruiser 3.0L engine is 29 inches long, 26 inches wide, and 21 inches high. It weighs 635 lbs; the alternator delivers 65 amps and 917 watts. The full-throttle RPM range is 4,400 to 4,800.

- Generators can produce both AC and DC.eolic generator image by Gon?¡ìalo Carreira from Fotolia.com

Electricity is the flow of electrons, but electrons can flow in several different ways, so there are several different kinds of electricity. If all the electrons flow in one direction --- like the cars on a one-way street --- it is direct current (DC), and if the electrons flow smoothly back and forth --- like the water in waves --- it is alternating current (AC). Generators are devices that convert mechanical energy into electricity, and generators can produce either DC or AC.

- In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted discovered that when electricity flows through a wire magnetism is produced around the wire and when a wire moves through a magnetic field electricity starts to flow in the wire (the principle that generators work on). In generators --- both AC and DC --- the part that moves is really a shaft upon which there are thousands of loops of wire. Two things are needed to generate electricity: something has to turn the shaft and some means must be used to get the electricity out of the rotating loops and then out of the generator. The force that turns the shaft often is driven by steam, falling water or wind power.

- All generators have the same three components: the stator, the rotor and some way (usually brushes riding on rings) to get the induced electricity from the rotor to the world outside the generator. The only difference between an AC generator and a DC generator is how the electricity is taken out of the generator. The stator is the fixed outer part of the generator that provides the magnetism. In small DC motors this is a permanent magnet. In larger generators this can be an electromagnet powered by the electricity that is being produced (it is necessary to turn these a few times before they start working). The rotor is the rotating part that is turned by mechanical energy. The rotor contains a single wire that is looped many times.

- Both AC and DC generators produce electricity in the same way --- it is how the electricity is taken out of the generator that makes a generator AC or DC. AC generators have two rings --- one connected to each end or the rotor winding. As the generator rotates, the induced current first flows in one direction and then switches and flows in the other direction as the rotor approaches the north and south poles of the magnet. The DC generator has one ring with two gaps. Each half-ring is connected to one end of the rotor winding. The two brushes are touching opposite sides of the split ring. No matter which pole the rotor is approaching, the same brush is always positive and other brush is always negative because each brush takes the current off the half of the ring that has the correct polarity. This means that the output of a DC generator is DC current.

- 1). Measure and cut a piece of aluminum foil to 1 inch wide and 1 1/2 inches long. Fold it over along the length until it's about one-quarter inch wide. This is the form to which you will be adding the clay so it bakes evenly.
- 2). Soften a piece of polymer clay by warming it up and working it between your hands. This conditions the clay and makes it easier to work with. Flatten the clay to one-eighth-inch thick with a rolling pin. Cut a strip that's one-half-inch wide and 2 inches long with a knife.
- 3). Wrap the strip of clay around the aluminum foil and make press the edges together gently to blend them and get rid of the seams.
- 4). Apply some vegetable oil around a ring mandrel and gently wrap the clay-covered aluminum strip around the ring mandrel at the point of your ring size. Where the two ends of clay overlap is where the top of the ring will be. This is also where you'll add any embellishments or decorations. Blend the edges together.
- 5). Mold the decoration out of polymer clay. Use the tip of your knife to scratch and rough up the bottom of the decoration. Do the same to the middle of the top of the ring so the two pieces will interlock together. Press the two pieces together gently without changing the shapes of the clay.
- 6). Slip the ring off of the narrow end of the ring mandrel. Bake it in a conventional oven for 20 minutes at 250 degrees Fahrenheit. Remove the ring from the oven. Wait one hour for it to cool.
- 7). Brush a coat of clear acrylic gloss on the entire surface of the ring. Allow it to dry for 12 hours before wearing your clay ring.

- 1). Measure an eight-foot long 1-by-10-inch board with a tape measure and mark every two feet with a pencil. Cut the board at the marks with a jigsaw. You will have four pieces measuring two feet in length.
- 2). Arrange the boards in a square. One end of each board will overlap another board. Attach the boards with wood glue and allow to dry. Secure each corner with four wood screws and a screwdriver.
- 3). Measure a six-foot long piece of 1-by-10-inch board with a tape measure and mark at 32 inches. Measure from the first mark and make a second mark at 32 inches. Cut the boards on the mark. You will have two pieces that measure 32 inches in length.
- 4). Measure the boards and mark 15 inches from the ends. Measure ¾-inch from the first mark on each board and mark it with a pencil. Measure 4-5/8 inches from the marks down the sides of the boards and mark with a pencil. Draw a line from the end of the first mark to the end of the second mark. Cut out the notches with a jigsaw.
- 5). Paint, stain or varnish the boards and the square with a paint brush, if desired.
- 6). Assemble the two 32-inch boards into an "X." Slide the boards together at the notches and firmly push into place until the edges are flush.
- 7). Place the boards inside the box. The ends of the boards will fit into the corners of the box. The "X" will fit tightly into the box. The wine rack is now ready for use.

- Natural numbers are also called the "counting" numbers. They are the numbers that are used to describe quantities, such as 1, 2 ,3, 4 and so on. Fractions, the number 0 and negative numbers are not included in the natural numbers.

Whole numbers are simply the natural numbers with 0 included: 0,1,2,3,4 and so on. As with the natural numbers, fractions and negative numbers are not included in the whole numbers. When negative numbers are included with whole numbers, then the set of numbers would be called "integers."

- Rational numbers include the integers and any fraction that converts to a decimal that ends or has a repetitive pattern. The term "rational" is derived from the term "ratio," which is another representation of a fraction.

To demonstrate the concept, the fraction 2/3 is a rational number because 2/3=.6 repeating, which is a repeating decimal. The fraction 1/2 is a rational number because 1/2=.5, which is a terminating decimal. The fraction 10/1 is rational because 10/1=10, which is an integer.

- Irrational numbers and rational numbers are mutually exclusive sets of numbers. Irrational numbers are numbers that do not have an exact value as an integer, fraction or decimal. Two common examples of irrational numbers are pi and the square root of 2. These two numbers have decimal or fractional approximations but they are not exact values. For example, pi is commonly estimated as 3.14159, but that approximation never ends, never repeats and has no pattern.

- The natural numbers is a subset of the whole numbers, the whole numbers is a subset of the integers and the integers is a subset of the rational numbers. The irrational numbers is a completely different set of numbers from the rational numbers. In short, rational numbers include whole numbers. For instance, the number 10 is a both a whole number and a rational number. The only difference between whole and rational numbers is that the rational numbers is the larger grouping that includes whole numbers, negative numbers and fractions with exact decimal values.

- Zarc International introduced oleoresin capsicum spray as a less-than-lethal alternative to force for subduing individuals and animals in the early 1980s. The spray produces an intense burning sensation in the eyes, mouth and skin and also inflames the eyes and throat.

- Capsicum contains the natural pain reliever capsaicin. Both capsicum and its extract serve as the active ingredient in several nonprescription arthritis and muscle ache creams and ointments.

- Concentrated in sprays, oleoresin capsicum produces an intense burning sensation that wears off within 15 to 20 minutes. In topical preparations, capsicum and its extracts block the production of substance P, a neurotransmitter that conveys pain signals from the site of an injury to the brain.

- A 1993 International Association of Chiefs of Police report on the use of oleoresin capsicum spray by law enforcement officers cited "no long-term health risks associated with the use of" the spray. However, C. Gregory Smith and Woodhall Stopford noted in a September/October 1999 "North Carolina Medical Journal" article that the heat and swelling produced by oleoresin capsicum could cause people sprayed with it to suffer problems such as skin burns and respiratory arrest.

- Branded oleoresin capsicum sprays include Mace and Kimber. Among pain relievers, Cramer Atomic Balm contains oleoresin capsicum, and Zostrix contains capsaicin.